主题目录

  • 课程介绍( Course Introduction)

    • University: Massachusetts Institute of Technology

      Instructors: Prof. B. D. Colen

      Course Number: CMS.935

      Level: Undergraduate / Graduate

      Course Description

      This course is an introduction to the great tradition of documentary photography. Students learn to see the world around them in a new way and produce a documentary project. The course requires reading and writing about photography, as well as doing it on a regular basis. The class emphasis is on thinking about why people photograph, what photographs do and do not mean to us, and on doing documentary work, on telling stories with photographs. This is not a technical class, and it should not be considered an "introduction to photography." I work on the assumption that any student signing up for the class has at least a minimal sense of the difference between f stops and T stops, and can find his or her way around a camera. While there will be some technical discussion in class, it will be limited.

  • 教学大纲(Syllabus)

    • Course Description

      This course is an introduction to the great tradition of documentary photography. Students learn to see the world around them in a new way and produce a documentary project. The course requires reading and writing about photography, as well as doing it on a regular basis. The class emphasis is on thinking about why people photograph, what photographs do and do not mean to us, and on doing documentary work, on telling stories with photographs. This is not a technical class, and it should not be considered an "introduction to photography." I work on the assumption that any student signing up for the class has at least a minimal sense of the difference between f stops and T stops, and can find his or her way around a camera. While there will be some technical discussion in class, it will be limited.

      Do you need to own fancy equipment to take this class? No. But you do need to have equipment that will provide you with at least some flexibility as a photographer. You may shoot either film or digital - it's your call. But if you shoot film, it's up to you to get your film processed and scanned - and there will be a great deal of scanning to do. Which is to say that the use of digital equipment is highly encouraged.

      We live in a constantly moving world, and everywhere we turn we see moving images of that world. Even our music has been transformed into moving images through the medium of music videos. Given that, one must ask what role, if any, still photography in general, and traditional documentary photography and photojournalism in particular, play in our perception of the world around us.

  • 其他教学资源(Other Resources)

  • 作业(Assignments)

    • Assignment Details

      Nachtwey

      In one page react to Nachtwey and his work — Do you believe him? Can he accomplishing anything? Do you believe the documentary presents an honest picture of the photographer? Anything else you want to tell me.

      Cole

      "Objectivity — Myth, Reality, or Ultimate Goal" — 600-700 words. Consider Cole's view of objectivity and the biases of the documentarian, and explain whether a documentary photographer can — or should — be objective, and what part objectivity, or lack of it, plays in the value of the photographers work.

      Photo-A-Week (PAW)

      Each week you will observe the world around you, looking for stories that can be captured in a single still image. And each week you will bring to class a single image that tells a story, a story obvious to anyone seeing the image. There will be specific focus — forgive me — to some of the assignments.

      Notebook

      In which you will exchange your camera for a notebook, wander about, and return with detailed descriptions of the half-dozen or so images you would have shot if you'd only had your camera with you. And when I say "detailed," I mean that I not only want you to record details of the scene in front of you, I want to know why you think the scene is worth the expenditure of a single frame of film, or even of a single pixel. I want to know why you think this particular scene, object, or person is worth the effort required to push the shutter release; what makes this a photograph worth making? If nothing else, you should come away from this exercise having learned that you should never leave the house without some sort of camera over your shoulder, or in your pocket.

      PAW 1

      You will have spent the past week shooting photographs - from within 15 feet of your subjects and from their fronts - that tell stories. You will submit the one best photo from the week. You should not have to explain the photo to us. If we can't look at the image and get it, the photo has failed. Remember, the only things a still photograph brings to a viewer are those things that are visible - what you heard, felt, thought, smelled, or cared about when you took the photo are meaningless if they are not conveyed by the light captured in a fraction of a second when your shutter is open.

      PAW 2

      Same as PAW 1 assignment.

      Mirror

      This exercise is designed to give you a sense of what it is like to be a photographic subject over a relatively long period of time. You will all pair off, and as pairs will spend a minimum of 12 hours together. For half that time, one of you will be the photographer and one will be the subject; for the other half you will switch roles. The subject gets to decide what he or she wants to spend the time doing — anything from hanging out in your jammies doing problem sets and catching up on Facebook, to hiking the Freedom Trail, to racing go-carts — whatever. The photographer's job will be to document the subject's "day," and to select and sequence the 12 photos that best tell the story of that day. Good luck.

      Framing

      (An exercise designed by Eugene Richards, arguably the greatest living American documentary photographer.) For this assignment you will pick a subject to shoot the equivalent of one roll of film of portraits — 30 to 40 images. You will decide where you want to take these photos, and once you and your subject are initially positioned, your subject may not move — if he or she is sitting, that's what they will do throughout the sessions; if they start out standing, they will remain standing — in the same spot. And sitting, that's what they will do throughout the sessions; if they start out standing, they will remain standing — in the same spot. And you may not move your feet once you start shooting — you may lean, crouch, stretch, hold the camera high or low; but you must remain in the same place. And you may use only a single focal length lens, or single focal length on a zoom lens.

      PAW 3

      Robert Capa, one of the founders of Magnum Photos and the first great modern war photographer, is alleged to have once said, "If your pictures aren't good enough, you're not close enough." (He also is said to have remarked, "F 8 and be there," but more about that later.) This week you will get in your subjects faces - you will shoot your PAWs from within six feet of the front of your subjects. Yes, I know this will make you uncomfortable. Yes, I know this is difficult. Yes, it is challenging. But if I may coin a phrase - Just do it!

      The Real "Decisive Moment"

      Despite what you may previously read or been taught, is not the instant at which you release the shutter; it is that instant in which you see the possibilities in a scene or situation and commit to working it until you have extracted all its photographic promise.

      For this assignment you will chose a single lens, or will tape your zoom at a single focal length that will require you to work reasonably close to your subject — 50 mm or shorter. You will then go to somewhere and find a scene or situation and will work it from every conceivable angle, using your frame in every way imaginable. You are expected to make a minimum of 72 exposures — on this assignment. If you think this is an easy assignment, you are not taking it seriously enough.

      Space Ship

      (This exercise was originally conceived by Charles Harbutt for use in his workshops. I have made some modifications in it.)

      This assignment is intended to test your imagination, and your ability to capture your ideas as images.

      Assume for a moment that you are going to be leaving earth on a spaceship, never to return. There will not be any form of entertainment or decoration on the ship. You will not have any mirrors, films, works of art, etc. You will be eating processed food and drinking filtered urine. You may, however, bring 10 photographs with you.

      In a 24 hours period, without consulting any of your classmates, make 10 photographic images that will sustain you on your voyage. We are not looking for great art; we are looking for personally meaningful images. Do you want pictures of your dog? Your mother? Or the manhole cover outside your apartment? It's up to you.

      Each of you will be required to plan execute a documentary photo project. You may select your own subject — subject to my approval, but I would urge that you not take on anything too grandiose. I would suggest that you begin looking for a subject close to home — but that is not part of your personal life, consider, for instance:

      • Life on a dorm floor
      • Life on a sheep farm;
      • A day-week-month in a local laundromat;
      • The work of a scientist, or lab;
      • The life of an unseen worker.

      On the other hand, you may push the envelope as far as you dare and are capable of pushing it — If you can gain access to a group of people, or an organization, whose lives or functioning we normally never see, go for it. But remember, to paraphrase Magnum photographer Susan Meiselas.

      Madison Assignment

      Writing assignment — Remember "Madison?" Write a 600-1000 word short story based on what you think, or want to imagine, is going on in the photo. Your story may start or end with the scene in the photo; it may allude to the photo.

      Madison: Remember "Madison?" Go back and look at this photo by Texas photographer Bill Clough. What do you see? No, look carefully at this photo. Consider the composition, the lighting, the exposure, the use of the frame. Now forget those things. Focus instead on what you see in front of you. Who is the girl? The man? Where are they? Why are they there? What are they doing? Do they know each other? Where did they come from? Where are they going? What do you see?

      Thought about it? Okay, now write the first 800 words of a short story using the photo as your subject, or your taking off point. Your story doesn't have to be about the photo, but it must be connected somehow to the photo.

      Magnum Stories Presentations

      Each Week starting with week three — You will each select a photographer whose work is included in Magnum Stories and prepare a 10-minute presentation on that photographer for your fellow students. If there are conflicts over presentation dates and photographers, they will be settled by drawing lots.

      Magnum stories (due Week #2)
      Each member of the class will give a 10 minute presentation some time during the semester on one of the photographers whose work is included in Magnum Stories. By the time you come to the second class be prepared with your first, second, and third choice of photographer, and, if you have a preference, the date when you'd like to present.

      Magnum stories (due Week #3)
      First Magnum stories presentations: You know who you are.

      Magnum stories (due Week #4)
      You better know who you are.

      Magnum stories (due Week #5)
      I know who you are. So you'd better too.

      Magnum stories (due Week #6)
      And the beat goes on.

      Magnum stories (due 1 week after Week #6)
      You'd better know who you are.

      Magnum stories (due Week #8)
      I hope we still remember who you are.

      Magnum stories (due Week #9)
      Is this your week?

      Magnum stories (due 1 week after Week #9)
      If you have not yet presented, you are now on deck.